Jumping from Harvard to Vancouver

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The Journal has made the decision to change the referencing style for all articles, with immediate effect. We are moving away from the existing Harvard style to the Vancouver style of referencing and full details are available in the author guidelines on our website. For a while things may look a bit clunky as new papers will be intermingled with papers that were accepted using the old referencing style and which are already published on Early View.

The new style will bring about a radical change in the appearance of our papers. The example below shows how Vancouver will make a difference.

Harvard version:

A small of study children demonstrated a relationship between maternal iron status and adiposity and offspring blood pressure (Godfrey et al., 1994). Blood pressure was also an outcome reported by Project Viva, a US prospective cohort study following the children of women whose nutritional status had been measured in detail in the period prior to and during pregnancy. Gillman and colleagues (2003) reported that maternal calcium supplementation during pregnancy reduced blood pressure in 6 month old infants. Project Viva also identified an association between higher maternal vitamin D intake and lower risk of childhood asthma among 3-year-olds (Camargo et al., 2007). The same cohort showed that babies born to women who gained excessive weight in pregnancy were more likely to be obese in childhood (Oken et al., 2009). Normia et al., (2013), reported that in a small cohort of mother-child (4 year old) pairs, higher maternal carbohydrate intake was associated with higher childhood systolic blood pressure and higher childhood systolic blood pressure was noted in offspring exposed to lowest or highest tertiles of maternal fat intake during pregnancy. A longer-term follow up of Scots in their forties for whom maternal food intake data was available also provided evidence that maternal intake could be a driver of intrauterine programming (Campbell et al., 1996). Adult blood pressure was associated with maternal intakes of animal protein and sugars, but the relationship was complex and non-linear.

Camargo, C.A., Rifas-Shiman, S.L., Litonjua, A.A., Rich-Edwards, J.W., Weiss, S.T., Gold, D.R., Kleinman, K.& Gillman, M.W. (2007). Maternal intake of vitamin D during pregnancy and risk of recurrent wheeze in children at 3 y of age. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 85, 788-795.

Campbell, D.M., Hall, M.H., Barker, D.J.P., Cross, J., Shiell, A.W. & Godfrey, K.M. (1996). Diet in pregnancy and the offspring’s blood pressure 40 years later. Br. J. Obs. Gynae. 103, 273-280.

Gillman, M.W., Rifas-Shiman, S., Rich-Edwards, J., Kleinman, K. & Lipshultz, S.E. (2003). Maternal calcium intake and offspring blood pressure. Circulation 107, E7016.

Godfrey, K.M., Redman, C.W., Barker, D.J. & Osmond, C. (1991). The effect of maternal anaemia and iron deficiency on the ratio of fetal weight to placental weight. Br. J. Obs. Gynae. 98, 886-891.

Normia, J. Laitinen, K., Isolauri, E., Poussa, T., Jaakkola, J & Ojala T. (2013) Impact of intrauterine and post-natal nutritional determinants on blood pressure at 4 years of age. J. Hum. Nutr. Diet. 10.1111/jhn.12115

Oken, E., Kleinman, K.P., Belfort, M.B., Hammitt, J.K. & Gillman, M.W. (2009). Associations of gestational weight gain with short- and longer-term maternal and child health outcomes. Am. J. Epidemiol. 170, 173-180.

Vancouver version:

A small of study children demonstrated a relationship between maternal iron status and adiposity and offspring blood pressure(1). Blood pressure was also an outcome reported by Project Viva, a US prospective cohort study following the children of women whose nutritional status had been measured in detail in the period prior to and during pregnancy. Gillman and colleagues (2) reported that maternal calcium supplementation during pregnancy reduced blood pressure in 6 month old infants. Project Viva also identified an association between higher maternal vitamin D intake and lower risk of childhood asthma among 3-year-olds(3). The same cohort showed that babies born to women who gained excessive weight in pregnancy were more likely to be obese in childhood(4). Normia et al., reported that in a small cohort of mother-child (4 year old) pairs, higher maternal carbohydrate intake was associated with higher childhood systolic blood pressure and higher childhood systolic blood pressure was noted in offspring exposed to lowest or highest tertiles of maternal fat intake during pregnancy(5). A longer-term follow up of Scots in their forties for whom maternal food intake data was available also provided evidence that maternal intake could be a driver of intrauterine programming(6). Adult blood pressure was associated with maternal intakes of animal protein and sugars, but the relationship was complex and non-linear.

1. Godfrey KM, Redman CW, Barker DJ et al., (1991) The effect of maternal anaemia and iron deficiency on the ratio of fetal weight to placental weight. BJOG 98, 886-891.

2.Gillman MW, Rifas-Shiman S, Rich-Edwards J, et al., (2003) Maternal calcium intake and offspring blood pressure. Circulation 107, E7016.

3. Camargo CA, Rifas-Shiman SL, Litonjua AA, et al., (2007). Maternal intake of vitamin D during pregnancy and risk of recurrent wheeze in children at 3 y of age. Am J Clin Nutr. 85, 788-795.

4. Oken E, Kleinman KP, Belfort B, et al., (2009) Associations of gestational weight gain with short- and longer-term maternal and child health outcomes. Am J Epidemiol 170, 173-180.

5. Normia J, Laitinen K, Isolauri E, et al.,  (2013) Impact of intrauterine and post-natal nutritional determinants on blood pressure at 4 years of age. J Hum Nutr Diet 10.1111/jhn.12115

6. Campbell DM, Hall MH, Barker DJP, et al., (1996) Diet in pregnancy and the offspring’s blood pressure 40 years later. BJOG 103, 273-280.

Protein wasting in haemodialysis

Predictors of protein-energy wasting in haemodialysis patients: a cross-sectional study

Ruperto et al., JHND Early View

Background

Protein-energy wasting (PEW) is a highly prevalent condition in haemodialysis patients (HD). The potential usefulness of nutritional-inflammatory markers in the diagnosis of PEW in chronic kidney disease has not been established completely. We hypothesised that a combination of serum albumin, percentage of mid-arm muscle circumference and standard body weight comprises a better discriminator than either single marker of nutritional status in HD patients.

Methods

A cross-sectional study was performed in 80 HD patients. Patients were categorised in two groups: well-nourished and PEW. Logistic regression analysis was applied to corroborate the reliability of the three markers of PEW with all the nutritional-inflammatory markers analysed.

Results

PEW was identified in 52.5% of HD patients. Compared with the well-nourished patients, PEW patients had lower body mass index, serum pre-albumin and body cell mass (all < 0.001) and higher C-reactive protein (s-CRP) (< 0.01). Logistic regression analyses showed that the combination of the three criteria were significantly related with s-CRP >1 mg dL−1, phase angle <4°, and serum pre-albumin <30 mg dL−1 (all < 0.05). Other indicators, such as lymphocytes <20% and Charlson comorbidity index, were significantly involved (both < 0.01). A receiver operating characteristic curve (area under the curve) of 0.86 (< 0.001) was found.

Conclusions

The combined utilisation of serum albumin, percentage of mid-arm muscle circumference and standard body weight as PEW markers appears to be useful for nutritional-inflammatory status assessment and adds predictive value to the traditional indicators. Larger studies are needed to achieve the reliability of these predictor combinations and their cut-off values in HD patients and other populations.

JHND is a truly international journal

Over the last year JHND has established itself as an international journal. We have an editorial board that covers the UK, Europe, USA, Canada and Australia and receive submissions from all over the world. When you publish with us, your article reaches libraries all over the world and in the online format papers accessed in all world regions. Over the last year JHND articles have been downloaded more than 30000 times.

 

Readership JHNDOnline traffic

We are constantly striving to make the experience of JHND a positive one. We offer rapid editorial turnaround times (current time to first decision is just over 30 days; time to acceptance is 55 days). Papers accepted for publication appear on our Early View site within 6 weeks of acceptance and we offer Open Access publication. Our drive for quality means that only the top 20% of submissions are published.

 

 

Facilitators and barriers to weight loss and weight loss maintenance

Facilitators and barriers to weight loss and weight loss maintenance: a qualitative exploration

Metzgar et al., JHND Early View

Background

The present study aimed to explore facilitators and barriers to weight loss (WL) and weight loss maintenance (WLM) in women who participated in a primary, 18-week comparative trial that promoted WL with an energy-restricted diet.

Methods

Twenty-three women participated in seven focus groups conducted by a moderator and co-facilitator using open-ended questions and probes. Focus groups were held in a private room and audio tape-recorded. Tapes were transcribed verbatim and thematic analysis was used to evaluate transcripts for common themes.

Results

Accountability to others, social support, planning ahead, awareness and mindfulness of food choices, basic nutrition education, portion control, exercise, and self-motivation were perceived as key facilitators for WL and WLM by women. Identified barriers included life transitions, health status changes, internal factors, environmental pressures, lack of accountability and an absence of social support.

Conclusions

Future interventions should address these salient facilitators and barriers to promote sustainable changes in women across their WL and WLM journeys.

 

Validation of the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire

Validation of the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire: an online version

Chang and Leung. JHND Early View

Background

Internet-based interventions can facilitate an anonymous environment for the management of eating disorders and there is a need for online assessment tools to be readily available. The present study aimed to validate an online version of the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) and to compare the goodness-of-fit of five models of EDE-Q data, using a sample of university students in Hong Kong.

Methods

The EDE-Q data were collected online from 310 Hong Kong university students. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to compare the validity of the original four-factor EDE-Q with that of the three-factor, two-factor, one-factor and brief one-factor models. The superior model was further examined for scale reliability, convergent validity and construct validity using contrast-group comparisons.

Results

The brief one-factor model consisting of eight Weight and Shape Concern items was the only model to provide an acceptable fit to the data. Estimations of internal consistency and scale validity were conducted using contrast-group comparisons and convergent validity, with satisfactory results.

Conclusions

The brief one-factor model was the only one among the alternate models that provided good fit to the data. The brief model is promising for use in research and has good practical application because the model was satisfactorily tested in terms of internal consistency, ability to discriminate between genders, and good association with other measures of similar constructs. By validating an online version of the EDE-Q using a university sample with a cultural background different from Western culture, the present study complements findings from previous research on the EDE-Q.

Reducing intakes of sugar-sweetened beverages in children

A systematic review investigating interventions that can help reduce consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages in children leading to changes in body fatness

 Avery et al., JHND Early View

Background

Both the prevalence of childhood obesity and the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) have increased globally. The present review describes interventions that reduce the consumption of SSBs in children and determines whether this leads to subsequent changes in body fatness.

Methods

Three databases were searched from 2000 to August 2013. Only intervention control trials, ≥6 months in duration, which aimed to reduce the consumption of SSBs in >100 children aged 2–18 years, and reporting changes in body fatness, were included. The quality of selected papers was assessed.

Results

Eight studies met inclusion criteria. Six interventions achieved significant (P < 0.05) reductions in SSB intake, although this was not always sustained. In the two interventions providing replacement drinks, significant differences in body mass index (12- or 18-month follow-up) were reported (P = 0.001 and 0.045). The risk of being overweight/obesity was reduced (P < 0.05) in three of the five education programmes but in one programme only for girls who were overweight at baseline and in one programme only for pupils perceived to be at greater risk at baseline. In the one study that included both provision of water and education, the risk of being overweight was reduced by 31% (P = 0.04) in the intervention group.

Conclusions

The evidence suggests that school-based education programmes focusing on reducing SSB consumption, but including follow-up modules, offer opportunities for implementing effective, sustainable interventions. Peer support and changing the school environment (e.g. providing water or replacement drinks) to support educational programmes could improve their effectiveness. Home delivery of more suitable drinks has a big impact on reducing SSB consumption, with associated reductions in body weight.