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The November/December issue of the journal will feature the following articles:
The Malnutrition Screening Tool versus objective measures to detect malnutrition in hip fracture. J. J. Bell, J. D. Bauer and S. Capra
Development of a low phenolic acid diet for the management of orofacial granulomatosis. H. E. Campbell, M. P. Escudier, P. Milligan, S. J. Challacombe, J. D. Sanderson and M. C. E. Lomer
An exploratory study to evaluate whether medical nutrition therapy can improve dietary intake in hospital patients who eat poorly. E. Agarwal, M. Ferguson, M. Banks, J. Bauer, S. Capra and E. Isenring
PUBLIC HEALTH NUTRITION AND EPIDEMIOLOGY
Impact of intrauterine and post-natal nutritional determinants on blood pressure at 4 years of age. J. Normia, K. Laitinen, E. Isolauri, T. Poussa, J. Jaakkola and T. Ojala
Portion weights of food served in English schools: have they changed following the introduction of nutrient-based standards? J. Pearce, L. Wood and L. Stevens
Year 7 dietary intake: a comparison of two schools with middle–high socio-economic status. H. C. Greatwood, A. Daly-Smith, S. McGregor and J. McKenna
Dietary adequacy and alcohol consumption of Inuvialuit women of child-bearing age in the Northwest Territories, Canada. F. Kolahdooz, K. Spearing, A. Corriveau and S. Sharma
Nutrient intakes, major food sources and dietary inadequacies of Inuit adults living in three remote communities in Nunavut, Canada. S. Sharma, B. N. Hopping, C. Roache and T. Sheehy
Accuracy and preference of measuring resting energy expenditure using a handheld calorimeter in healthy adults. A. M. Madden, L. J. F. Parker and F. Amirabdollahian
A multicomponent lifestyle intervention produces favourable changes in diet quality and cardiometabolic risk indices in hypercholesterolaemic adults. M. Petrogianni, S. Kanellakis, K. Kallianioti, D. Argyropoulou, C. Pitsavos and Y. Manios
Effect of dietary protein on post-prandial glucose in patients with type 1 diabetes. C. Borie-Swinburne, A. Sola-Gazagnes, C. Gonfroy-Leymarie, J. Boillot, C. Boitard and E. Larger
DIETETIC PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE
Health professionals’, expert patients’ and dieters’ beliefs and attitudes about obesity. A. McConnon, R. Gribble, M. M. Raats, J. Stubbs and R Shepherd
Impact of polyunsaturated vegetable oils on adiponectin levels, glycaemia and blood lipids in individuals with type 2 diabetes: a randomised, double-blind intervention study
Mullner et al., 2013
Low adiponectin levels are discussed as risk factor for cardiovascular events. This is of special importance in individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) because they are at higher risk for cardiovascular diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of two plant oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), with different content of omega-3 fatty acids, on adiponectin levels, glucose and lipid metabolism in T2DM individuals treated either with insulin or oral anti-diabetics (OAD).
Ninety-two subjects with T2DM [34 treated with insulin (T2DM-Ins) and 58 treated with OAD (T2DM-OAD)] participated in this randomised, double-blind, parallel intervention study. Individuals received either 9 g of nut oil (n-3:n-6 ratio: 1.3 : 6.1) or mixed oil (n-3:n-6 ratio: 0.6 : 5.7) per day for 10 weeks. The fatty acid profile, tocopherol, adiponectin levels and parameters regarding glucose and lipid metabolism were assessed at baseline, during and after the intervention.
Compliance was confirmed by significant increases in γ-tocopherol and PUFA in both oil groups. An increase in adiponectin levels in T2DM-Ins participants (+6.84% in nut oil and +4.47% in mixed oil group after 10 weeks compared to baseline) was observed, albeit not significantly different from T2DM-OAD individuals (P = 0.051). Lipid and glucose metabolism were not affected by the intervention.
The present study provides evidence that a small and easy change in dietary behaviour towards better fat quality moderately increases adiponectin levels in T2DM-Ins subjects, independently of the administered plant oil.
Student learning and thus assessment is hindered by a number of barriers, including workload demands and case-mix.
Work-based assessment: qualitative perspectives of novice nutrition and dietetics educators.
Palermo et al.,
The assessment of competence for health professionals including nutrition and dietetics professionals in work-based settings is challenging. The present study aimed to explore the experiences of educators involved in the assessment of nutrition and dietetics students in the practice setting and to identify barriers and enablers to effective assessment.
A qualitative research approach using in-depth interviews was employed with a convenience sample of inexperienced dietitian assessors. Interviews explored assessment practices and challenges. Data were analysed using a thematic approach within a phenomenological framework. Twelve relatively inexperienced practice educators were purposefully sampled to take part in the present study.
Three themes emerged from these data. (i) Student learning and thus assessment is hindered by a number of barriers, including workload demands and case-mix. Some workplaces are challenged to provide appropriate learning opportunities and environment. Adequate support for placement educators from the university, managers and their peers and planning are enablers to effective assessment. (ii) The role of the assessor and their relationship with students impacts on competence assessment. (iii) There is a lack of clarity in the tasks and responsibilities of competency-based assessment.
The present study provides perspectives on barriers and enablers to effective assessment. It highlights the importance of reflective practice and feedback in assessment practices that are synonymous with evidence from other disciplines, which can be used to better support a work-based competency assessment of student performance.
Consumption of snack foods is generally associated with greater energy intake by virtue of the high fat and sugar content of typically consumed snack items. In their paper “Reasons for eating ‘unhealthy’ snacks in overweight and obese males and females” Cleobury & Tapper reported the findings of a 5-day study of 55 overweight and obese subjects. In this group consumption of snack foods was explored by means of a 5-day food diary and a validated check-list of reasons for eating. The study found that the majority of snack-eating episodes were due to hunger and temptation (external eating) or emotional eating (in response to stress or boredom). The abstract for the paper is below.
Snack foods are often high in fat and sugar. Thus, reducing snack consumption may be a useful weight management strategy. However, individuals may snack for a variety of reasons with different implications for intervention. The present study examined the perceived reasons for eating main meals, ‘unhealthy’ snacks (i.e. snacks high in fat or sugar) and ‘healthy’ snacks in overweight and obese participants.
Over a period of 5 days, 28 males and 27 females completed a food diary every time they ate. As well as providing details about the type of eating episode and food eaten, they also rated their agreement with 13 different reasons for eating (identified from relevant literature and a pilot study).
Across a total of 1084 eating episodes, 358 were coded as snacks, 79% of which were high in either fat or sugar. The results showed that hunger and temptation (external eating) were reported as a reason for eating unhealthy snacks in 49% and 55% of all episodes, respectively. Eating because the individual was feeling fed up, bored or stressed (emotional eating) was given as a reason in 26% of episodes.
These findings point to the potential utility of intervention strategies that target cravings, enhance self-control or promote stimulus control.