Cannabinoid receptor polymorphism and macronutrient intake

Association of G1359A polymorphism of the cannabinoid receptor gene (CNR1) with macronutrient intakes in obese females

De Luis et al., JHND Early View

Background

The endogenous cannabinoid system plays a role in metabolic aspects of body weight and feeding behaviour. A polymorphism (1359 G/A) (rs1049353) of the CB1 gene was reported as a common polymorphism in the Caucasian population. The present study aimed to investigate the association of the polymorphism (G1359A) of the CB1 receptor gene on macronutrient intake in females with obesity.

Methods

A sample of 896 females was analysed. A bioimpedance measurement, a blood pressure measurement, a serial assessment of nutritional intake with 3 days of written food records, and a biochemical analysis were all performed. The genotype of the CNR1 receptor gene polymorphism (rs1049353) was studied.

Results

Five hundred and sixteen patients (57.6%) had the genotype G1359G (non-A carriers) and 380 (42.4%) patients had G1359A (328 patients, 36.6%) or A1359A (52 patients, 5.8%) (A carriers). Triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels were higher in A non-A allele carriers than non-A allele carriers. The intakes of dietary cholesterol and saturated fat for the upper tertile (T3) compared to the baseline tertile were inversely associated with the CB1-R 1359 G/A polymorphism [odds ratio (OR) = 0.59; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.30–0.92 and OR = 0.66; 95% CI = 0.39–0.91, respectively]. These data were observed in the second tertile (T2) (OR = 0.61; 95% CI = 0.29–0.94 and OR = 0.58; 95% CI = 0.31–0.90, respectively).

Conclusions

The present study reports an association of the A allele with a better lipid profile (triglycerides and HDL cholesterol) than non-A allele carriers. In addition, this polymorphism is associated with a specific macronutrient intake, as well as with low cholesterol and fat saturated intakes.

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