Exclusive olive oil consumption and 10-year (2004–2014) acute coronary syndrome incidence among cardiac patients: the GREECS observational study
Kouvari et al., JHND Early View
The present study evaluated the association between long-term, exclusive olive oil consumption, in cooking preparation or as a dressing, and the 10-year (2004–2014) incidence of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) among cardiac patients.
From October 2003 to September 2004, a sample of 2172 ACS consecutive patients from six major Greek hospitals were enrolled. During 2013–2014, the 10-year follow-up was performed in 1918 patients (88% participation rate). The development of fatal or nonfatal ACS was recorded through medical records or hospital registries. Among other dietary components, added fats (i.e. olive oil, butter, margarine and seed oils) consumption at baseline examination was assessed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire.
Non-exclusive olive oil consumption on a daily basis was associated with an adverse effect on the ACS incidence after taking into account various potential confounders [odds ratio (OR) = 1.40, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.05–1.86, P = 0.024]. However, significant interactions between olive oil consumption and body mass index (BMI) (P = 0.082) and educational level (P = 0.054) led to further stratified analysis. Using BMI as strata (i.e. ≤29.9 versus >29.9 kg m–2), the above association remained significant only in obese patients (OR = 1.80, 95% CI = 1.03–3.12, P = 0.038), whereas, on examining the education status (i.e. ≤9 versus >9 years of school), a significant association was observed only among the higher educated patients (OR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.01–3.32, P = 0.047).
Exclusive use of olive oil, either as a salad dressing or in cooking, should be promoted through the dietary management of ACS patients, with the aim of reducing the likelihood of recurrent cardiac episodes.
The 2014 Impact Factor for JHND is 1.987. Unfortunately this is a slight fall from last year, but the good news is that the journal is sustaining a high standing around the 2.0 mark. We’re right on track in terms of our long term ambitions and are confident of an increase next year.
Nutritional status and eating habits of the institutionalised elderly in Turkey: a follow-up study
Rakıcıoğlu et al., JHND Early View.
As the elderly population increases in Turkey, so do the associated health and nutritional problems. The main purpose of the present study was to determine the nutritional status of elderly individuals who live in institutions.
A total of 102 elderly volunteers was recruited from seven residential homes of the Ministry of Family and Social Policies in Ankara. In the consecutive years of 2007, 2008 and 2009, dietary intake was assessed using a 24-h food recall. Nutritional status was screened using a questionnaire from the Mini-Nutritional Assessment, basic characteristics were determined and anthropometric measurements were assessed.
The percentage of elderly participants who were malnourished or at risk for malnutrition increased by the completion of the follow-up (P < 0.05). It was found that energy, total protein, animal proteins, carbohydrates, niacin, vitamin C, vitamin E and zinc intake of men decreased significantly over the years studied (P < 0.05). A significant decrease occurred among women in animal protein, vitamin B1, niacin and the percentage of energy from proteins (P < 0.05); however, an increase in energy from fat (P < 0.05) was determined. Within the years studied, the percentage of nutrients meeting the Turkish recommended daily allowances decreased from 2007 to 2009 both in men and women. During the years 2007 to 2009, the percentage of waist circumferences >102 cm for men was 46.4%, 45.6% and 48.1%, respectively, and the percentage of waist circumferences for women >88 cm was 75.6%, 75.6% and 81.8%, respectively.
During the follow-up, significant nutritional changes were determined. To prevent malnutrition, periodical screening of nutritional status should be a priority and a standard policy for elderly people, especially for those institutionalised.