Comparisons of physical activity, adipokines, vitamin D status and dietary vitamin D intake among adolescents
Virecoulon Giudici et al., JHND Early View
Considering that lifestyle and diet are key factors responsible for the increases in adiposity in youth, it is important to understand how vitamin D, adipokines and markers of glucose metabolism are related to physical activity level (PAL) during growth. The present study aimed to investigate associations between physical activity level, adiponectin/leptin ratio, vitamin D status and dietary vitamin D intake among adolescents.
A cross-sectional study was conducted with adolescents aged 14–18 years old who were living in São Paulo, Brazil. Serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], adiponectin (A), leptin (L), glucose and insulin were obtained after 12 h of fasting. Dietary calcium and vitamin D intake were measured by 24-h food record, as repeated in 62.6% of the sample. PAL was measured by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Pearson’s chi-square test, Pearson correlation and linear regression analysis were performed.
A total of 198 subjects, mean (SD) age 16.3 (1.4) years, 51% male, were enrolled in the study. Some 9% of participants were sedentary, 22% were insufficiently active (IA), 51% were active and 18% were very active (VA). The A/L ratio was lower among sedentary/IA subjects [2.2 (4.0) versus 5.6 (12.3); P = 0.01] compared to active/VA subjects. PAL was not associated with vitamin D status or markers of glucose metabolism. Serum 25(OH)D positively associated with vitamin D intake, after adjusting for sex, sun exposure and season of the year in regression analysis (partial r2=0.026, P = 0.02).
Low PAL was associated with a lower A/L ratio. Vitamin D status was not associated with sun exposure habits, although it was positively correlated with vitamin D intake.