Dietary strategies for achieving adequate vitamin D and iron intakes in young children in Ireland
Kehoe et al., JHND Early View
Inadequate intakes of vitamin D and iron have been reported in young children in Ireland. The present study aimed to identify the main foods determining vitamin D and iron intakes and to model the impact of dietary strategies to improve adequacy of these micronutrients in young children.
The present study is based on the Irish National Pre-School Nutrition Survey (NPNS), which estimated food and nutrient intakes in a representative sample (n = 500) of children (aged 1–4 years) using a 4-day weighed food record. Dietary strategies were modelled using DaDiet© software (Dazult Ltd, Co. Kildare, Republic of Ireland) and the usual intake distribution, prevalence of inadequate intakes and risk of excessive intakes were estimated using the National Cancer Institute method.
Fortified foods and nutritional supplements were the key foods influencing the intakes of vitamin D and iron. Adding a 5 μg day−1 vitamin D supplement, fortifying cow’s milk (CM) with vitamin D or replacing CM with growing-up milk (GUM) would modestly increase intakes of vitamin D. A combined strategy of fortifying CM with vitamin D or replacing CM with GUM plus a 5 μg day−1 vitamin D supplement would increase mean intakes of vitamin D (from 3.5 μg day−1 at baseline to ≥11 μg day−1) and substantially reduce the prevalence of inadequate intakes (from >95% to 12–36%). Fortifying CM with iron or replacing CM with GUM would increase mean intakes of iron (from 7.3 mg day−1 to >10 mg day−1), achieving adequate intakes across all ages.
Based on real food consumption data in a representative sample of Irish children, we have shown that through targeted dietary strategies adequate intakes of iron are achievable and intakes of vitamin D could be greatly improved.
Supplementation with nutrients modulating insulin-like growth factor-1 negatively correlated with changes in the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in community-dwelling elderly people at risk of undernutrition
Kim et al., JHND Early View
Suboptimal nutrition accompanied by chronic low-grade increases in circulating cytokine levels is more common in elderly people. We explored the improvement in nutritional status, especially in the level of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and its relationship with changes in circulating cytokine levels, after providing extra protein and energy content to community-dwelling older adults at risk of undernutrition.
Sixty nondiabetic subjects, aged ≥65 years and living independently in a community for elderly people, with a serum pre-albumin level ≤30 mg dL−1 and a body mass index <25 kg m−2, were recruited. The subjects were followed for a 2-week pre-intervention period, during which they maintained routine dietary habits. This was followed by an intervention period, during which they received oral nutritional supplementation for 2 weeks.
Following 2 weeks of intervention, there were significant increases in total lymphocyte count (TLC) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, pre-albumin and transferrin compared to baseline. Body weight and mid-arm circumference significantly increased without alteration of tricep skinfold thickness at the end of the intervention. There was a significant reduction in interleukin (IL)-6 levels and a trend toward a decrease in the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels. At baseline, age was negatively correlated with IGF-1 levels and positively correlated with IL-6 and TNF-α levels. The change (▵, from baseline) in IGF-1 level was positively correlated with age and negatively correlated with ▵IL-6 and ▵TNF-α.
A 2-week intervention with oral nutritional supplementation improved nutritional status and decreased circulating cytokine levels. Specifically, ▵IGF-1 was negatively correlated with changes in pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in community-dwelling elderly people at risk of undernutrition. (Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02656186).