Impact of lifestyle change on the cardio- metabolic risk factors of relatives of diabetic subjects

Lifestyle change reduces cardiometabolic risk factors and glucagon-like peptide-1 levels in obese first-degree relatives of people with diabetes

Bowes et al., JHND Early View unknown-2

 

Background

Preventing type 2 diabetes in a real-world setting remains challenging. The present study aimed to assess the effectiveness of a lifestyle-based programme for individuals at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes as assessed by achieved weight loss, cardiovascular risk factors and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1).

Methods

Sixty-six obese individuals with history of diabetes in first-degree relatives participated in an 8-month lifestyle programme consisting of 12 × 1.25 h group education sessions led by dietitian and a weekly exercise programme. Before and after comparisons were made of fasting blood glucose, insulin, HbA1c, lipids, GLP-1 and quality of life (QoL).

Results

Fifty-four participants of whom the majority were women [47 females; mean (SD) body mass index 35.3 (2.8) kg m−2; age = 52 (10) years] completed the 8-month programme. Mean (SD) weight loss was 10.1 (6.0) kg (P < 0.001). Out of 54 participants, 36 lost more than 7% of their body weight and 47 lost more than 5%, with significant improvements in cardiovascular risk factors, glycaemia and QoL scores. The fall was observed in basal (P < 0.05 versus baseline) but not stimulated GLP-1 levels. In the subgroup of participants losing >10 kg, a correlation was found between weight change and change in both basal (r = 0.61, P < 0.05) and stimulated (r = 0.49, P < 0.05) GLP-1.

Conclusions

An evidence-based lifestyle programme achieved sustained weight loss in obese first-degree relatives of individuals with type 2 diabetes associated with improvements in cardiometabolic risk factors and QoL without the ‘voltage drop’ of less benefit commonly seen when moving from the clinical trial experience into the real world.

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