Dietary glycaemic index and glycaemic load and upper gastrointestinal disorders: results from the SEPAHAN study
Keshtell et al., JHND Early View
Little is known about the effects of carbohydrate, particularly any association between dietary glycaemic index or glycaemic load and uninvestigated heartburn or uninvestigated chronic dyspepsia in the community. The present study aimed to determine associations between dietary glycaemic index or glycaemic load and uninvestigated heartburn or uninvestigated chronic dyspepsia.
This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2987 adults. Dietary glycaemic index and glycaemic load were estimated using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Uninvestigated heartburn and uninvestigated chronic dyspepsia were determined using a modified and validated version of the Rome III questionnaire.
After controlling for various confounders, high glycaemic load was associated with an increased risk of uninvestigated heartburn [odds ration (OR) = 1.75; 95% confidence interval CI = 1.03, 2.97; P = 0.04] and uninvestigated chronic dyspepsia (OR = 2.14; 95% CI: 1.04, 4.37; P = 0.04) in men but not in women. In normal-weight individuals, high glycaemic index was related to an increased risk of uninvestigated heartburn (OR = 1.52; 95% CI: 1.07, 2.15; P = 0.02) and high glycaemic load to an increased risk of uninvestigated chronic dyspepsia (OR=1.78; 95% CI: 1.05, 3.01; P = 0.03). No significant associations were observed in subjects with excess body weight.
Our data suggest that there are body mass index- and sex-specific associations between dietary carbohydrate quality with uninvestigated heartburn and uninvestigated chronic dyspepsia.