Dietary intake and lifestyle behaviour in different phenotypes of polycystic ovarian syndrome: a case–control study
Amirjani et al., JHND Early View
The present study aimed to compare dietary intake and lifestyle behaviour in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and healthy women.
One hundred and sixty healthy women (partner with male infertility) were recruited to a control group; 168 women with PCOS (diagnosed on ultrasound) were recruited to a case study group for this cross‐sectional comparative study. The case group was classified into three phenotypes based on the presence or absence of menstrual disorder (M), hyperandrogenism (HA) and polycystic ovary according to sonography (PCO): HA+PCO (n = 53), PCO+M (n = 57) and M+HA+PCO (n = 66). Dietary intake and lifestyle behaviour were measured using a food frequency questionnaire and a lifestyle questionnaire.
The mean energy (P < 0.001) and fat (P < 0.001) intakes were greater in PCOS groups compared to the control group. The average energy and fat intakes were greater in HA+M+PCO group after age and body mass index (BMI) adjustment compared to the other phenotypes (P < 0.001). In comparison with the control group, lifestyle scores were lower in the PCOS group in the fields of physical activity, weight and nutrition control after age and BMI adjustment (P < 0.001). The average score of lifestyle in the fields of physical activity, weight and nutrition control, and psychological health was lower in the phenotype HA+M+PCO compared to the other phenotypes (P < 0.001).
A limited energy and fat intake is strongly recommended in Iranian women with PCOS, especially for phenotype HA+M+PCO. Consultation with respect to improvement of psychological health and the importance of weight and nutrition control, as well as appropriate physical activity, is advocated, especially in patients with phenotype HA+M+PCO.