Dietary patterns and all-cause mortality

Adherence to the Healthy Eating Index and Alternative Healthy Eating Index dietary patterns and mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease and cancer: a meta-analysis of observational studies

Onvani et al., JHND Early View

Background

This meta-analysis investigated the association of diet quality indices, as assessed by HEI and AHEI, and the risk of all-cause, cardiovascular and cancer mortality.

Methods

We used PubMed, ISI Web of Science and Google Scholar to search for eligible articles published before July 2015. A total of 12 cohort studies (38 reports) and one cross-sectional study (three reports) met the inclusion criteria and were included in our meta-analysis.

Results

The highest level of adherence to the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) and Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI) was significantly associated with a reduced risk of all-cause mortality [relative risk (RR) = 0.77, 95% confidence intterval (CI) = 0.76–0.78], cardiovascular mortality (RR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.74–0.80) and cancer mortality (RR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.81–0.86). Egger regression tests provided no evidence of publication bias.

Conclusions

The present study indicates that high adherence to HEI and AHEI dietary patterns, indicating high diet quality, are associated with reduced risk of all-cause mortality (as well as cardiovascular mortality and cancer mortality).

Dietary patterns and all-cause mortality

Development and validation of a quantitative snack and beverage food frequency questionnaire for adolescents

Development and validation of a quantitative snack and beverage food frequency questionnaire for adolescents

De Cock et al., JHND Early View

Background

A short, reliable and valid tool to measure snack and beverage consumption in adolescents, taking into account the correct definitions, would benefit both epidemiological and intervention research. The present study aimed to develop a short quantitative beverage and snack food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and to assess the reliability and validity of this FFQ against three 24-h recalls.

Methods

Reliability was assessed by comparing estimates of the FFQ administered 14 days apart (FFQ1 and FFQ2) in a convenience sample of 179 adolescents [60.3% male; mean (SD) 14.7 (0.9) years]. Validity was assessed by comparing FFQ1 with three telephone-administered 24-h recalls in a convenience sample of 99 adolescents [52.5% male, mean (SD) 14.8 (0.9) years]. Reliability and validity were assessed using Bland–Altman plots, classification agreements and correlation coefficients for the amount and frequency of consumption of unhealthy snacks, healthy snacks, unhealthy beverages, healthy beverages, and for the healthy snack and beverage ratios.

Results

Small mean differences (FFQ1 versus FFQ2) were observed for reliability, ranking ability ranged from fair to substantial, and Spearman coefficients fell within normal ranges. For the validity, mean differences (FFQ1 versus recalls) were small for beverage intake but large for snack intake, except for the healthy snack ratio. Ranking ability ranged from slightly to moderate, and Spearman coefficients fell within normal ranges.

Conclusions

Reliability and validity of the FFQ for all outcomes were found to be acceptable at a group level for epidemiological purposes, whereas for intervention purposes only the healthy snack and beverage ratios were found to be acceptable at a group level.

Development and validation of a quantitative snack and beverage food frequency questionnaire for adolescents

Clinical evaluation of obese teenagers-relating anthropometry to disease risk indicators

Body composition of obese adolescents: association between adiposity indicators and cardiometabolic risk factors

Araujo et al., JHND Early View

Background

The association between obesity during adolescence and the increased risk of cardiometabolic diseases indicates the need to identify reproducible and cost effective methods for identifying individuals who are at increased risk of developing diseases. The present cross-sectional study investigated the occurrence of metabolic consequences of obesity in adolescents and the use of adiposity indicators as predictors of cardiometabolic risk.

Methods

A fasting blood sample was taken in 93 pubertal obese adolescents aged 13–18 years old (39 males, 54 females) for the assessment of cardiometabolic risk markers (glucose, lipid profiles, insulin resistence, and inflammatory and endothelial dysfunction markers). Together with anthropometry, total fat mass and lean mass were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA).

Results

The prevalence of dyslipidaemia and disorders in glucose metabolism are noticeably higher in the present study. There was no correlation between the percentage of body fat according to DXA and most indicators of adiposity. For boys, the arm circumference values predicted the increase in fasting insulin (r² = 0.200), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (r² = 0.267) and cardiometabolic risk score (r² = 0.338). The percentage of body fat according to DXA predicted the inflammation score (r² = 0.172). For girls, body mass index was the parameter that best described the variability of fasting insulin (r² = 0.079) and inflammation score (r² = 0.263). The waist-to-stature ratio was able to predict the triglyceride values (r² = 0.090).

Conclusions

Anthropometric measures of adiposity, such a body mass index, waist-to-stature ratio, arm circumference and waist circumference,should be considered in the clinical evaluation of obese adolescents.

Clinical evaluation of obese teenagers-relating anthropometry to disease risk indicators

Genotype-specific responses to weight loss diets

Polymorphism of neuropeptide Y gene rs16147 modifies the response to a hypocaloric diet on cardiovascular risk biomarkers and adipokines

De Luis et al., JHND Early View

Background

The main genetic variant described in NPY gene is rs16147 (G-399A) and it is located within the promoter region upstream of the gene for neropeptide Y (NPY). We evaluate the effects of the rs16147 NPY gene polymorphism on metabolic changes secondary to weight loss after 3 months of a hypocaloric diet in adult obese patients.

Methods

A population of 82 obese patients was analysed in an interventional design of one arm. Before and after 3 months on a hypocaloric diet, an anthropometric evaluation, an assessment of nutritional intake and a biochemical analysis were performed. The statistical analysis was performed for combined GA and AA as a group (minor allele group) and GG as second group (major allele group) (dominant model).

Results

In A allele carriers, the mean (SD) decrease in weight was −2.8 (2.2) kg [decrease in non A allele carriers −2.6 (1.1) kg, P > 0.05), body mass index was −1.2 (0.6) kg m−2 [decrease in non A allele carriers −1.1 (0.8) kg m−2P > 0.05], fat mass was −1.7 (1.4) kg [decrease in non A allele carriers −1.9 (1.3) kg, P > 0.05], waist circumference was −5.5 (3.4) cm [decrease in non A allele carriers −3.7 (4.1) cm, P = 0.006], C-reactive protein (CRP) was −0.7 (0.6) mg dL−1 [decrease in non A allele carriers −0.1 (0.3) mg dL−1P = 0.02], insulin was −1.5 (0.4) mUI L−1 [decrease in non A allele carriers −0.8 (2.0) mUI L−1P = 0.001] and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was −0.4 (0.5) [decrease in non A allele carriers −0.2 (0.1), P = 0.005]. interleukin (IL)-6 changes were significant in A allele carriers [−0.7 (0.2) pg mL−1] versus non A allele carriers [−0.1 (0.3) pg mL−1] (P = 0.01).

Conclusions

We found that the rs164147 genotype affected the reduction of waist circumference, HOMA-IR, insulin, CRP and IL-6 levels in response to weight loss diet in obese subjects.

Genotype-specific responses to weight loss diets

Is there an association between dietary intake and academic achievement?

Is there an association between dietary intake and academic achievement: a systematic review

Burrows et al., JHND Early View

Background

The majority of literature examining the effect of dietary behaviour on academic achievement has focused on breakfast consumption only. Here, we aim to systematically review the literature investigating the broader effects of dietary intake and behaviours on school-aged children’s academic achievement.

Methods

A search was undertaken across seven databases using keywords. For studies to be included, they needed to be conducted in: school-aged children (5–18 years); assess and report: (i) a measure of academic performance; (ii) a measure of dietary intake/behaviour; and (iii) the association between dietary intake/behaviours and academic performance. Forty studies were included in the review.

Results

The majority of studies were cross-sectional in design (n = 33) and studied children aged >10 years, with very few reports in younger age groups. More than 30 different dietary assessment tools were used, with only 40% of those using a validated/standardised assessment method. Half the studies collected outcomes of academic achievement objectively from a recognised educational authority, whereas 10 studies used self-reported measures. The dietary outcomes most commonly reported to have positive associations with academic achievement were: breakfast consumption (n = 12) and global diet quality/meal patterns (n = 7), whereas negative associations reported with junk/fast food (n = 9).

Conclusions

This review highlights that moderate associations exist for dietary intakes characterised by regular breakfast consumption, lower intakes of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods and overall diet quality with respect to outcomes of academic achievement. Future studies should consider the use of validated dietary assessment methods and standardised reporting of academic achievement.

 

Is there an association between dietary intake and academic achievement?

Green tea and the post-prandial insulin response in obese women

Green tea extract and catechol-O-methyltransferase genotype modify the post-prandial serum insulin response in a randomised trial of overweight and obese post-menopausal women

Dostal et al., JHND Early View

Background

Green tea extract (GTE) may be involved in a favourable post-prandial response to high-carbohydrate meals. The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) genotype may modify these effects. We examined the acute effects of GTE supplementation on the post-prandial response to a high-carbohydrate meal by assessing appetite-associated hormones and glucose homeostasis marker concentrations in women who consumed 843 mg of (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) or placebo capsules for 11–12 months.

Methods

Sixty Caucasian post-menopausal women (body mass index ≥ 25.0 kg m–2) were included in a randomised, double-blind feeding study. GTE was consumed with a breakfast meal [2784.0 kJ (665.4 kcal); 67.2% carbohydrate]. Blood samples were drawn pre-meal, post-meal, and every 30 min for 4 h. Participants completed six satiety questionnaires.

Results

Plasma leptin, ghrelin and adiponectin did not differ between GTE and placebo at any time point; COMT genotype did not modify these results. Participants randomised to GTE with the high-activity form of COMT (GTE-high COMT) had higher insulin concentrations at time 0, 0.5 and 1.0 h post-meal compared to all COMT groups randomised to placebo. Insulin remained higher in the GTE-high COMT group at 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 h compared to Placebo-low COMT (< 0.02). GTE-high COMT had higher insulin concentrations at times 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 h compared to the GTE-low COMT ( 0.04). Area under the curve measurements of satiety did not differ between GTE and placebo.

Conclusions

GTE supplementation and COMT genotype did not alter acute post-prandial responses of leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin or satiety, although it may be involved in post-meal insulinaemic response of overweight and obese post-menopausal women.

Green tea and the post-prandial insulin response in obese women