Olive oil and acute coronary syndrome

Exclusive olive oil consumption and 10-year (2004–2014) acute coronary syndrome incidence among cardiac patients: the GREECS observational study

Kouvari et al., JHND Early View

Background

The present study evaluated the association between long-term, exclusive olive oil consumption, in cooking preparation or as a dressing, and the 10-year (2004–2014) incidence of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) among cardiac patients.

Methods

From October 2003 to September 2004, a sample of 2172 ACS consecutive patients from six major Greek hospitals were enrolled. During 2013–2014, the 10-year follow-up was performed in 1918 patients (88% participation rate). The development of fatal or nonfatal ACS was recorded through medical records or hospital registries. Among other dietary components, added fats (i.e. olive oil, butter, margarine and seed oils) consumption at baseline examination was assessed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire.

Results

Non-exclusive olive oil consumption on a daily basis was associated with an adverse effect on the ACS incidence after taking into account various potential confounders [odds ratio (OR) = 1.40, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.05–1.86, P = 0.024]. However, significant interactions between olive oil consumption and body mass index (BMI) (P = 0.082) and educational level (P = 0.054) led to further stratified analysis. Using BMI as strata (i.e. ≤29.9 versus >29.9 kg m–2), the above association remained significant only in obese patients (OR = 1.80, 95% CI = 1.03–3.12, P = 0.038), whereas, on examining the education status (i.e. ≤9 versus >9 years of school), a significant association was observed only among the higher educated patients (OR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.01–3.32, P = 0.047).

Conclusions

Exclusive use of olive oil, either as a salad dressing or in cooking, should be promoted through the dietary management of ACS patients, with the aim of reducing the likelihood of recurrent cardiac episodes.

The most downloaded papers of 2014

The five most downloaded JHND papers of 2014 were:

1.The effect of phosphatidylserine administration on memory and symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial Hirayama et al., Cited by 2 papers.

2.Assessment of nutritional status in clinical settings. Langley-Evans and King. Not cited.

3.British Dietetic Association evidence-based guidelines for the dietary management of Crohn’s disease in adults Lee et al. Cited by 6 papers.

4.Nutrition in early life and the programming of adult disease: a review Langley-Evans. Cited by 11 papers.

5.Living with coeliac disease: a grounded theory study Rose and Howard. Cited by 4 papers.

Our 2014 Impact Factor

impact-slap

The 2014 Impact Factor for JHND is 1.987. Unfortunately this is a slight fall from last year, but the good news is that the journal is sustaining a high standing around the 2.0 mark. We’re right on track in terms of our long term ambitions and are confident of an increase next year.

Nutrition in the elderly

Nutritional status and eating habits of the institutionalised elderly in Turkey: a follow-up study

Rakıcıoğlu et al., JHND Early View.

Background

As the elderly population increases in Turkey, so do the associated health and nutritional problems. The main purpose of the present study was to determine the nutritional status of elderly individuals who live in institutions.

Methods

A total of 102 elderly volunteers was recruited from seven residential homes of the Ministry of Family and Social Policies in Ankara. In the consecutive years of 2007, 2008 and 2009, dietary intake was assessed using a 24-h food recall. Nutritional status was screened using a questionnaire from the Mini-Nutritional Assessment, basic characteristics were determined and anthropometric measurements were assessed.

Results

The percentage of elderly participants who were malnourished or at risk for malnutrition increased by the completion of the follow-up (P < 0.05). It was found that energy, total protein, animal proteins, carbohydrates, niacin, vitamin C, vitamin E and zinc intake of men decreased significantly over the years studied (P < 0.05). A significant decrease occurred among women in animal protein, vitamin B1, niacin and the percentage of energy from proteins (P < 0.05); however, an increase in energy from fat (P < 0.05) was determined. Within the years studied, the percentage of nutrients meeting the Turkish recommended daily allowances decreased from 2007 to 2009 both in men and women. During the years 2007 to 2009, the percentage of waist circumferences >102 cm for men was 46.4%, 45.6% and 48.1%, respectively, and the percentage of waist circumferences for women >88 cm was 75.6%, 75.6% and 81.8%, respectively.

Conclusions

During the follow-up, significant nutritional changes were determined. To prevent malnutrition, periodical screening of nutritional status should be a priority and a standard policy for elderly people, especially for those institutionalised.

Dietary guidelines from the ADA and risk of CVD

Alternative health eating index and the Dietary Guidelines from American Diabetes Association both may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes patients

Pei-Yu Wu et al., JHND Early View

Background

In the general population, a higher Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI)-2010 score is related to decreased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Few studies have described the dietary patterns that reduce the risk of CVD or coronary heart disease (CHD) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. In the present study, the association between the American Diabetes Association (ADA)-recommended dietary pattern, AHEI-2010 , and CVD risk factors and the CVD incidence over 52 months in T2DM patients was evaluated.

Methods

The ADA score was developed from the ADA dietary recommendations. In this prospective study, the 24-h dietary recall of 124 adult T2DM patients without nephropathy or chronic kidney disease was collected. The CVD risk factors were collected at baseline and at 6-month follow-up.

Results

Compared with lower ADA and AHEI-2010 score participants, the higher score participants exhibited a significantly lower waist circumference, serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level and 10-year risk of CHD. Participants with higher ADA dietary scores had a significantly reduced risk of central obesity and systolic blood pressure >140 mmHg. Higher AHEI-2010 scores were significantly related to a reduced risk of serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol > 100 mg dL-1. Seven participants had their first-ever CVD during the follow-up period, although neither ADA score, nor AHEI-2010 score could predict CVD incidence.

Conclusions

The ADA-recommended dietary pattern and a higher AHEI-2010 score might both exhibit reduced risk factors of CVD in T2DM patients.

NAFLD: Diet and metabolic syndrome

Associations between dietary intake and the presence of the metabolic syndrome in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

Georgoulis et al., JHND Early View

Background

Although dietary habits have been associated with the likelihood of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the general population, similar associations in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients have not been explored. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the presence of the MetS and to explore its potential association with dietary habits in a sample of NAFLD patients.

Methods

Seventy-three adult patients with recent NAFLD diagnosis based on elevated liver enzyme levels and evidence of hepatic steatosis on ultrasound were enrolled. Participants’ habitual food consumption was retrospectively assessed through a food frequency questionnaire and adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD) was assessed via the Mediterranean Diet Score (MedDietScore). The presence of the MetS was defined as the concomitant presence of at least three of its individual components, according to the criteria proposed by a recent joint statement of several major organisations.

Results

The MetS was present in 46.5% of the sample, with increased waist circumference values and decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels being the most prevalent disorders (63% and 88.7%, respectively). Consumption of refined grains [odds ratio (OR) = 1.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.00–1.05] and red meat and products (OR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.01–1.21) were positively associated with the presence of the MetS, whereas the consumption of whole grains (OR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.84–0.99) and MedDietScore (OR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.76–0.99) were negatively associated, after adjusting for participants’ age, sex, daily energy intake and time spent in sedentary activities.

Conclusions

Low refined grain and red meat intake, high whole grain intake and high adherence to the MD were associated with lower odds of the MetS in NAFLD patients.

Picky eating and weight in childhood

Picky eating and child weight status development: a longitudinal study

Antoniou et al., JHND Early View

Background

Children’s picky eating behaviour has been linked both to being overweight and underweight. However, the role of parenting practices in this relationship has rarely been investigated. The present study aimed to clarify the direction of the association between picky eating and weight status and to examine the moderating role of food parenting practices.

Methods

The present study comprised a longitudinal study on the effects of picky eating on child weight status within the KOALA Birth Cohort Study, the Netherlands. Mothers and their children were included in the analyses. Children’s picky eating behaviour and food parenting practices were assessed at baseline (child age 5 years). Their weight status was assessed repeatedly until age 9 years. Mixed effects linear and logistic regressions were used to compare picky eaters (n = 403) and non-picky eaters (n = 621) on changes in weight status over the years.

Results

At baseline of age 5 years, picky eaters were slightly shorter, more often underweight and less often overweight than non-picky eaters, whereas energy intake in relation to body weight (kJ kg−1) was similar. Picky eaters with a normal weight at baseline had no increased risk of becoming underweight during follow-up until age 9 years, and were less likely to become overweight compared to non-picky eaters. There were no interactions with food parenting practices. The parents of picky eaters more often reported pressuring their child to eat and restrict unhealthy food intake compared to parents of non-picky eaters.

Conclusions

The association between picky eating and child weight status was not influenced by parenting practices.