Every citation-conscious author worth his or her salt takes some time every now and then to monitor the state of play using Web of Science, Scopus or similar. Journal editors are e more citation-conscious that most people on the planet, so here are the findings of my latest trawl through the archives. What are the most widely cited papers for JHND over the last 5 years? Top of the tree for 2011 was:
Staudacher et al.,
Background: Emerging evidence indicates that the consumption of fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) may result in symptoms in some patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The present study aimed to determine whether a low FODMAP diet is effective for symptom control in patients with IBS and to compare its effects with those of standard dietary advice based on the UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines.
Methods: Consecutive patients with IBS who attended a follow-up dietetic outpatient visit for dietary management of their symptoms were included. Questionnaires were completed for patients who received standard (n = 39) or low FODMAP dietary advice (n = 43). Data were recorded on symptom change and comparisons were made between groups.
Results: In total, more patients in the low FODMAP group reported satisfaction with their symptom response (76%) compared to the standard group (54%, P = 0.038). Composite symptom score data showed better overall symptom response in the low FODMAP group (86%) compared to the standard group (49%, P < 0.001). Significantly more patients in the low FODMAP group compared to the standard group reported improvements in bloating (low FODMAP 82% versus standard 49%, P = 0.002), abdominal pain (low FODMAP 85% versus standard 61%, P = 0.023) and flatulence (low FODMAP 87% versus standard 50%, P = 0.001).
Conclusions: A low FODMAP diet appears to be more effective than standard dietary advice for symptom control in IBS.
The most cited paper of 2012 was:
McKenzie et al.,
Background: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic debilitating functional gastrointestinal disorder. Diet and lifestyle changes are important management strategies. The aim of these guidelines is to systematically review key aspects of the dietary management of IBS, with the aim of providing evidence-based guidelines for use by registered dietitians.
Methods: Questions relating to diet and IBS symptom management were developed by a guideline development group. These included the role of milk and lactose, nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP), fermentable carbohydrates in abdominal bloating, probiotics and empirical or elimination diets. A comprehensive literature search was conducted and relevant studies from January 1985 to November 2009 were identified using the electronic database search engines: Cinahl, Cochrane Library, Embase, Medline, Scopus and Web of Science. Evidence statements, recommendations, good practice points and research recommendations were developed.
Results: Thirty studies were critically appraised. A dietetic care pathway was produced following a logical sequence of treatment and formed the basis of these guidelines. Three lines of dietary management were identified. First line: Clinical and dietary assessment, healthy eating and lifestyle management with some general advice on lactose and NSP. Second line: Advanced dietary interventions to improve symptoms based on NSP, fermentable carbohydrates and probiotics. Third line: Elimination and empirical diets. Research recommendations were also identified relating to the need for adequately powered and well designed randomised controlled trials.
Conclusions: These guidelines provide evidence-based details of how to achieve the successful dietary management of IBS.
And from the 2013 crop, the most cited paper was:
Sanhueza et al.,
Nutrition may be a risk factor for unipolar depression. We aimed to review the association between dietary variables and the risk of depression.
Fifteen databases were searched up to May 2010. Only longitudinal studies for which outcomes were unipolar depression and/or depressive symptoms in adults were eligible for inclusion. Eleven studies were included and critically evaluated. Participants were in the age range 18–97 years and the study sample size was in the range 526–27 111. Follow-up ranged from 2 to 13 years. The diversity of dietary variables and nonlinear associations precluded formal meta-analysis and so a narrative analysis was undertaken.
Variables inversely associated with depression risk were the consumption of nutrients such as folate, omega-3 fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids; foods such as olive oil and fish; and a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, nuts and legumes. Some of these associations varied by sex and some showed a nonlinear association.
At the study level, weaknesses in the assessment of exposure and outcome may have introduced bias. Most studies investigated a cohort subgroup that may have resulted in selection bias. At the review level, there is a risk of publication bias and, in addition, narrative analyses are more prone to subjectivities than meta-analyses. Diet may potentially influence the risk of depression, although the evidence is not yet conclusive. Strengthening healthy-eating patterns at the public health level may have a potential benefit. Robust prospective cohort studies specially designed to study the association between diet and depression risk are needed.
Our most cited paper from 2014 was:
Yao et al.,
Sorbitol and mannitol are naturally-occurring polyol isomers. Although poor absorption and induction of gastrointestinal symptoms by sorbitol are known, the properties of mannitol are poorly described. We aimed to expand data on food composition of these polyols, and to compare their absorptive capacities and symptom induction in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and healthy individuals.
Food samples were analysed for sorbitol and mannitol content. The degree of absorption measured by breath hydrogen production and gastrointestinal symptoms (visual analogue scales) was evaluated in a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study in 21 healthy and 20 IBS subjects after challenges with 10 g of sorbitol, mannitol or glucose.
Certain fruits and sugar-free gum contained sorbitol, whereas mannitol content was higher in certain vegetables. Similar proportions of patients with IBS (40%) and healthy subjects (33%) completely absorbed sorbitol, although more so with IBS absorbed mannitol (80% versus 43%; P = 0.02). Breath hydrogen production was similar in both groups after lactulose but was reduced in patients with IBS after both polyols. No difference in mean (SEM) hydrogen production was found in healthy controls after sorbitol [area-under-the-curve: 2766 (591) ppm 4 h–1] or mannitol [2062 (468) ppm 4 h–1] but, in patients with IBS, this was greater after sorbitol [1136 (204) ppm 4 h–1] than mannitol [404 (154) ppm 4 h–1; P = 0.002]. Overall gastrointestinal symptoms increased significantly after both polyols in patients with IBS only, although they were independent of malabsorption of either of the polyols.
Increased and discordant absorption of mannitol and sorbitol occurs in patients with IBS compared to that in healthy controls. Polyols induced gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with IBS independently of their absorptive patterns, suggesting that the dietary restriction of polyols may be efficacious.
It may be early days yet, but the most cited paper so far in 2015 is:
Langley-Evans Foetal development and infancy are life stages that are characterised by rapid growth, development and maturation of organs and systems. Variation in the quality or quantity of nutrients consumed by mothers during pregnancy, or infants during the first year of life, can exert permanent and powerful effects upon developing tissues. These effects are termed ‘programming’ and represent an important risk factor for noncommunicable diseases of adulthood, including the metabolic syndrome and coronary heart disease. This narrative review provides an overview of the evidence-base showing that indicators of nutritional deficit in pregnancy are associated with a greater risk of type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular mortality. There is also a limited evidence-base that suggests some relationship between breastfeeding and the timing and type of foods used in weaning, and disease in later life. Many of the associations reported between indicators of early growth and adult disease appear to interact with specific genotypes. This supports the idea that programming is one of several cumulative influences upon health and disease acting across the lifespan. Experimental studies have provided important clues to the mechanisms that link nutritional challenges in early life to disease in adulthood. It is suggested that nutritional programming is a product of the altered expression of genes that regulate the cell cycle, resulting in effective remodelling of tissue structure and functionality. The observation that traits programmed by nutritional exposures in foetal life can be transmitted to further generations adds weight the argument that heritable epigenetic modifications play a critical role in nutritional programming. For those who are interested in such things, the most cited paper of all time for the Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics is a review article by Carrie Ruxton and colleagues:
Ruxton et al., The UK dietary guidelines for cardiovascular disease acknowledge the importance of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) – a component of fish oils – in reducing heart disease risk. At the time, it was recommended that the average n-3 PUFA intake should be increased from 0.1 to 0.2 g day−1. However, since the publication of these guidelines, a plethora of evidence relating to the beneficial effects of n-3 PUFAs, in areas other than heart disease, has emerged. The majority of intervention studies, which found associations between various conditions and the intake of fish oils or their derivatives, used n-3 intakes well above the 0.2 g day−1recommended by Committee on Medical Aspects of Food Policy (COMA). Furthermore, in 2004, the Food Standards Agency changed its advice on oil-rich fish creating a discrepancy between the levels of n-3 PUFA implied by the new advice and the 1994 COMA guideline. This review will examine published evidence from observational and intervention studies relating to the health effects of n-3 PUFAs, and discuss whether the current UK recommendation for long-chain n-3 PUFA needs to be revisited.